Home inverter is an electrical device used to give the power to the electric appliances in the event of the power failure. The name inverter implies first changes alternating current to direct current to charge the battery then, it inverts direct current to alternating current for powering the electric devices There are different types of Inverters are available in the market. The most proficient inverter is the pure sine wave which produces an alternating current like to the domestic power supply in wave form. Generally, the low cost types of inverters mainly include Square wave & quasi sine wave. But, less efficient than the pure sine wave inverter because some electric machines will not work properly in these inverters. Now, solar powered inverters are very famous to conserve energy, but the cost will be very high as it needs a very large solar panel.
What is a 12V DC to 120V AC Inverter?
The Inverter is an electrical appliance which converts DC to AC. The inverter is mainly used in emergency situations where the power backup is required like a home, offices, etc. And also it is used in several aircraft systems to change a section of the aircraft direct current power to alternating current. The AC power is mainly used for electrical appliances such as lights, radio, radar, motor and other appliances.
The fundamental elements of an inverter mainly include an oscillator, transformer and charger. Lets understand the operating principle of these elements.
Oscillator: An oscillator changes the input Direct Current from a battery into a square wave or an oscillating current which is fed to the minor winding of a transformer.
Transformer: The applied voltage is stepped up according to the ratio of the transformer windings and an alternating current much higher than the i/p DC source, that becomes accessible at the main winding or the o/p of the inverter.
Charger: When the battery gets discharged to a significant level during power backups, the charger segment is used to charge the battery once the AC mains are refurbished.
12v DC to 120v AC Inverter Circuit Diagram
The 12v DC to 120v AC inverter is used to run a TV or stereo while on the camping or road. This inverter uses 12 volts direct current and steps up to 120 volts alternating current. Basically, the wattage depends on the transistors and transformer used for Q1, Q2 and for T1. The inverter can be assembled to supply everywhere from 1 to 1000 watts.
The required components include the following
- C1- 2.68 uf, C2-25V Tantalum Capacitor
- R1-10 Ohm, R2- 5 Watt Resistor
- R3-180 Ohm, R4- 1 Watt Resistor
- D1- HEP, D2-154 Silicon Diode
- Q1 and Q2-2N3055 NPN Transistor
- T1- 1,24 V
- MISC-1 Wire, Case, Receptical
In the following circuit, the T1 and transistors Q1 & Q2 determines how much wattage can supply an inverter. With the two transistors 2N3055 & T1= 15 A, the inverter can provide about 300 watts. For more power, huge transformers and powerful transistors can be replaced instead of Q1, Q2 and T1.The simple and low cost way to get a huge T1 is to reverse an old microwave transformer. These old microwave transformers are charged at about 1kilo watts and are ideal.
Go to a TV repair shop & dig through the dumpster until you find the biggest microwave you can get. Remove the transformer from the bigger microwave and the bigger transformer being alert not to touch the huge voltage capacitor that might still be charged. Now, detach the previous 2000 V secondary, being careful not to break the primary. Leave the main, now twist of 12 turns of wire, wind a loop and twist on 12 more twists. The measure of the wire will depend on the current you in the transformer supply.
For this, enamel coated magnet wire works immensely. Now protect the windings using tape. Keep in mind to use vast current transistors for Q1 & Q2. Each transistor can only handle 15 amps each. Consider, when working on high voltage, the current circuit illustrates huge amounts of current. Don’t allow your battery go deceased. Since this circuit generates 120 VAC, you must comprise a fuse.
You must use Titanium capacitors for both C1 & C2. Normal electrolytics will burn and burst. If you want to build 220/240 VAC in its place of 120 VAC, you require a transformer with a 220/240 primary in its place of the 120V unit specified here. The rest of the circuit continues the same. But it takes two times the current at 12V to generate 240V as it does 120V.
This is all about circuit diagram of 12v DC to 120v AC inverter From the above project finally we can conclude that, this circuit can be used to convert 12v DC to 120v AC which is used in homes. This project can handle 300watts of power which is apt for radios, TVs, and lights. Furthermore, any queries regarding this article or to implement a solar inverter please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the function of an inverter?