In today’s world there are wide varieties of solid-state, switch-mode, power-supply transistors to perform switching operations in power-electronic systems. All these have their own specifications in terms of current, voltage, switching speed, load, driver circuitry and temperature. Each one has its limitations and advantages as well, but its usage depends on the requirements of the application. [Read more…]
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The term SPWM stands for “Sinusoidal pulse width modulation” is a technique of pulse width modulation used in inverters. An inverter generates an output of AC voltage from an input of DC with the help of switching circuits to reproduce a sine wave by generating one or more square pulses of voltage per half cycle. If the size of the pulses is adjusted, the output is said to be pulse width modulated. With this modulation, some pulses are produced per half cycle. The pulses close to the ends of the half cycle are constantly narrower than the pulses close to the center of the half cycle such that the pulse widths are comparative to the equivalent amplitude of a sine wave at that part of the cycle. To change the efficient output voltage, the widths of all pulses are amplified or reduced while keeping the sinusoidal proportionality. With PWM (pulse width modulation), only the on-time of the pulses are changed during the amplitudes.
The electronic world is developing every day gradually. The change of voltage is the basic principle involved in many of the circuit devices. The Voltage has to be changed from higher to lower and from lower to higher, inverting, rectification etc. with all these it is impossible to run a circuit. In this article we will be converting 6V to 12V DC converter circuit, where the first DC is converted into AC which is called inverting and again converting AC to DC it is called rectification. We will be discussing everything in detailed with a basic circuit diagram and every point is written in a simple way to understand very quickly.
6V to 12V DC Converter Circuit
The 6V to 12V DC Converter Circuit mainly includes DC to AC conversion, AC to DC conversion which is discussed below.
DC to AC Conversion
In many of the applications it is required to convert from DC to AC. This is mainly used in places like camping, on roads where Stereo or TV is used or other appliances are required. The inverter which converts DC to AC will resolve this problem. Here it 12 VDC and steps it up to 120 VAC. Basically the wattage of the circuit depends on transistors which are used for Q1 and Q2, and also choosing of the transformer size T1. The inverter can be constructed to supply anywhere from 1 to 1000 watts.
The Parts of the circuit shown below.
- C1, C2 68 uf, 25 V Tantalum Capacitor
- R3, R4 180 Ohm, 1 Watt Resistor
- D1, D2 HEP 154 Silicon Diode
- T1 24V, Center Tapped Transformer
- R1, R2 10 Ohm, 5 Watt Resistor
- Q1, Q2 2N3055 NPN Transistor
- MISC Wire, Case, Receptacle
The wattage of inverter supply determined by Q1 and Q2, as well as the T1.
By using T1= 15A and Q2, Q1=2N3055, the inverter is capable of supplying around 300 watts. For more power T1, Q1 and Q2 are used like a substitute for larger transformers and more powerful transistors.
To get large T1 the easiest and least expensive ways rewinds an old microwave transformer. These are the transformers which are rated at about 1KW and also perfect. The bigger the microwave the bigger transformer. Now remove the transformer, and be careful not to touch the existing large high voltage capacitor which might be still charging. Remove the old 2000 V secondary of the transformer, and ensure not to damage the primary. Leave the primary intact. Now, the next step would be to wind on 12 turns of wire, twist a loop, and again wind on 12 more turns.
The gauge of the wire will generally depend on how much current you plan to have the transformer supply. For the security and safety wind with tape. For the transistors Q1 and Q2 it is to be remembered that they require high current. The 2N3055’s can only handle 15 amps each.
It is important to note that while operating at high Wattages, this circuit draws a huge amount of current which may lead to battery dead. Here a fuse is included in this project produces 120 VAC. The capacitors C1 and C2 should be tantalum. Electrolytic will overheat and explode.
AC to DC conversion
Rectification is the process of converting AC to DC. Thus the application used in many of the devices. AC voltages will be very dangerous.
Most of the consumer electronics goods will regulate from AC mains to DC. The circuit shown above will have a large transformer. It is made of several steel plates i.e. Sandwiched and then epoxies together, and two or more windings of coated copper wire. Each winding can be of few to several thousand turns. The no of windings basically determines the change in voltage.
Whenever a current is introduced through a winding or coil, it will create a magnetic field, and then poles will be formed along the winding axis. If another coil is placed nearby, along the same axis, the magnetic field will induce a current, and thus a voltage is induced in the second coil.
This adding of magnetic permeable core between the two greatly enhances the effect, reducing loss. These two windings can be wrapped on one another since they are insulated. It will lead to space saving and a very efficient. Several windings are added for separate windings to get desired voltages. Computer power supplies are sufficient. The output desired will be AC.
The magnetic coupling to work here the magnetic field must change polarity. By using AC current, it is possible to switch between negative and positive voltages at 50-60Hz. The electronic circuits to work, it must be stepped-down AC voltage to a flat, stable DC voltage.
Now here comes the bridge rectifier into action, and in this case a full-wave rectifier is used. Here switch the negative AC pulses to positive pulses, and will leave the positive pulses. Some voltage loss will take place due to the voltage requirements of the diodes. The final result would be a pulsed DC voltage, going from 0 to maximum voltage at 120Hz. We use a capacitor across the ‘-‘ and ‘+’ terminals to smooth out the ripples.
When the voltage rises from 0 to the max, the capacitor starts charging. When the voltage drops, the capacitor starts to discharge through the circuit, but in a slower rate, holding the voltage up while the supply drops to 0 and then rises again. When the capacitor charges to its value, it surges back to max again. Less rippling is formed because larger capacitors will allow the voltage to stay higher. The full – wave rectifier is better here than a half – wave rectifier, since there is less time between the high and low pulleys, will result more stable output.
This article is Simple 6V to 12V boost converter circuit using BD679 transistors. The power supply circuit uses the simple 6V to 12V boost converter circuit using BD679 transistors. To get DC voltage 12V here we have 6 volts only the circuit can modify DC voltage 6 Volt be 12VDC.
|1||R2, R3||2||4.7K 1/4W Resistor|
|2||R1, R4||2||2.2K 1/4W Resistor|
|3||R6||1||1.5K 1/4W Resistor|
|4||R5||1||1K 1/4W Resistor|
|5||R7||1||33K 1/4W Resistor|
|6||C1,C2||2||0.1uF Ceramic Disc Capacitor|
|7||R8||1||10K 1/4W Resistor|
|10||C3||1||470uF 25V Electrolytic Capacitor|
|11||Q3||1||BD679 NPN Transistor|
|12||D3||1||12V 400mW Zener Diode|
|14||Q1, Q4, Q2||3||BC547 NPN Transistor|
|15||MISC||1||Heat sink for Q3, wire, board, binding post|
The principle works of the circuit is Q1, R1, Q2, R2, R4, R5, D1, R3, C1 and C2 build the circuit is model astable multi-vibrator gives output as a square Wave, which gives a positive pulse signal at high frequency Here R6 perform to limit the current already flow and will reach at a pin B of Q3 and a pin C of Q4 in this condition, the current flow come to the pin B of Q3 make Q3 bias. But Q4 still not yet bias. This is because of still there is no current bias at a pin B. When Q3 is biased it makes the current flow through L1, D2 change ZD1 by causing drop voltage at ZD1.
When the voltage increase continually which will be equal to 12 volts? Now R7 will limit the current, where change comes in the way pin B of Q4. When Q3 stops biasing then Q4 starts to work. Now output voltage will be 0 volts, but when the positive pulse signal is sent to R6 then again it makes Q3 bias again. To appear the output at 12 volts all the time it can be achieved by using capacitor C3. It filters the current smoothly before increasing lead output voltage before it is used.
This article 6V to 12V DC Converter Circuit Explanation with Circuit diagram is explained with DC to AC, AC to DC, and consolidates explanation of both together along with their respective circuit diagrams. I hope everything is understood clearly with the above explanation. If there is anything yet to be clarified and you feel anything is missing or to implement any electrical and electronic projects, please feel free to comment in the below section. I will be certain helping you. Here is a question for you, what is switch mode power supply?
The term Shockley diode or PNPN diode is named from the inventor “William Bradford Shockley”. It is a four layer semiconductor device and it was the first semiconductor devices. It is similar to a thyristor with detached gate. Even though, this type of diode is not available commercially and not particularly useful. But, this diode is most useful in making other kinds of thyristors such as DIAC, TRIAC and SCR. Once we understand the basic concept of this diode, we will easily understand the other concepts covered in thyristors. Let us know the working of a Shockley diode and applications. [Read more…]
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As a common part of all the electronic power supplies circuits, rectifier circuit provides DC power supply from available AC supply for proper function of electronic equipments. Depends on the type of application, this rectifier configuration and types are varied like diode rectifiers and phase controlled rectifiers, etc. but each one has their own advantages and disadvantages. The rectifier circuit can be implemented with different solid state electronic or electrical components like diodes, SCRs, MOSFETs and so on. Upon these components used rectifier operation is varied in order to get the required output. Before going to know its types let us know what is a rectifier in brief. [Read more…]
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