The transistor amplifier which escalates the power level of the signals will have the audio frequency range is called as a transistor audio power amplifier. The practical amplifier contains a number of stages which will amplifies weak signals until required power is existing to activate the output device like loud speakers. In some stages the multistage amplifier will have the functions of voltage amplifier, hence the maximum power is in the last stage is called as the power stage. The basic block diagram of the audio amplifiers is given.
The concept of maximum power transfer theorem was proposed by “Moritz Von Jacobi” in the mid 19th century. The other name given to this theorem is Jacobi’s law. The main scenario is to transfer the maximum power and not maximum efficiency. Maximum power transfer theorem states that “the power transferred from a source or circuit to a load is maximum when the resistance of the load is made equal or matched to the internal resistance of the source or circuit providing the power to the load”. It can be used in the applications of both AC and DC circuits.
A filter is a device in signal processing used to allow wanted frequency components from the signals and to remove unwanted ones. The background noise of the interfacing signal can be reduced by eliminating some frequencies, which is known as filtering. Filter circuits can be designed to combine the properties of the LPF (low pass filter) and HPF (high pass filter) into a single filter, which is known as a bandpass filter. This filter can be created by combining a low pass filter and a high pass filter. The different types of filters include active or passive, time variant or time invariant, linearity-linear or non-linear, analog or digital, and so on. Here, in this article let us discuss about a bandpass filter, its types and applications.
The term Wheatstone bridge is invented and named by Charles Wheatstone. The main purpose of this circuit is to calculate the value of unknown resistance. But, the current digital multimeters gives a simple way to calculate a resistance. The applications of the Wheatstone bridge mainly involves, it can be used in amplifier circuits to interface different sensors and transducers with modern operational amplifiers. The Wheatstone bridge circuit is designed with two serial and parallel resistances in between two terminals like voltage and ground. When the Wheatstone bridge is stable, then the GND terminal creates a zero voltage difference b/n the two parallel branches. A Wheatstone bridge circuit comprises of two i/p terminals and two o/p terminals, that are arranged in a diamond shape using four transistors.Please follow the below link for projects: Electrical and electronic projects for honors
One of the major issues while designing the electronic circuit is, making of low voltage DC supply from AC supply to give the power to the electronic circuit. The straight method is the use of a step down transformer to decrease the high DC voltage to desired low DC voltage. Generally, the low voltage DC is the low current o/p. The lowest cost and most apt method are using a voltage dropping capacitor in series with the phase line. [Read more…]
The term Shockley diode or PNPN diode is named from the inventor “William Bradford Shockley”. It is a four layer semiconductor device and it was the first semiconductor devices. It is similar to a thyristor with detached gate. Even though, this type of diode is not available commercially and not particularly useful. But, this diode is most useful in making other kinds of thyristors such as DIAC, TRIAC and SCR. Once we understand the basic concept of this diode, we will easily understand the other concepts covered in thyristors. Let us know the working of a Shockley diode and applications. [Read more…]
Amplifier is an electronic device or circuit that is used for increasing the power of the (weak) output signal. These amplifiers are classified into various types such as voltage, current, power, linear, non-linear, transresistance, transconductance, and so on. In fact, amplifiers are different types which are specially used for some specific applications. Here in this article let us discuss about power amplifier working in a FM, but, primarily we must know what is a power amplifier. [Read more…]
The electronic circuits that are used for amplifying the signals are called as electronic amplifiers. There are different types of amplifiers which are classified based on the signal amplified by the specific electronic amplifier. Thus, the electronic amplifier circuits used for amplification of electric power are called as power amplifiers, voltage amplifying circuits called as voltage amplifiers, and so on. Similarly, electronic amplifiers used for the amplification of audio are called as audio amplifiers. In this article, let us discuss about audio power amplifier circuits. [Read more…]
Security systems are designed for detecting the intrusion and unauthorized entry into the residential houses, commercial buildings, industries, and military surroundings. In our day-to-day life, security systems for home is a major concern to protect from burglary, property, and self defense from intruders. Generally, security systems for home can be designed using different technologies. Alarm security systems for home, alarm security system integrated with closed-circuit television surveillance, and so on. Different types of security systems for home can be designed using different types of sensors such as motion sensors, sound sensors, vibration sensors, and so on. [Read more…]
Square wave can be defined as a non sinusoidal periodic waveform that can be represented as an infinite summation of sinusoidal waves. It has an amplitude alternate at a regular frequency between fixed minimum and maximum value with the same duration. Square wave generator are generally used in electronics and in signal processing. The square wave is the special case of rectangular wave. The square wave generator is just like a Schmit trigger circuit in which the reference voltage for the comparator depends on the output voltage. It is also said to be astable multivibrator. [Read more…]