Wireless communication is a technology used for transferring data between two or more points that are not connected by electrical or optical conductors. Most of the wireless technologies use radio waves as the medium instead of wires. The characteristics of a wireless electronic communication are mobility, reachability, simplicity, maintainability, and so on.
The two major devices used in wireless communication are access point and wireless adapter. There are different technologies used in wireless communication, such as GPRS, WI-FI, Infrared and Bluetooth. These technologies can be used in different applications like home, military, industries and robotics.
The following are a few of the wireless-based research projects that are most popular in a wide variety of applications.
1. Arduino Based Home Automation System
Home automation is the residential extension of a building automation. This type of automation involves automation of a house work or any of the house-hold activities. House automation involves centralized controlling of lighting and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) appliances.
Home automation involves the use of a computer and information technology to control home appliances and home belongings such as windows and lighting system. The automation system can be controlled by a computer or micro controller based networks.
The main objective of this project is to develop a home-automation system by an Arduino board with Bluetooth technology that can be remotely controlled by an Android OS smart phone. A Bluetooth module is interfaced to the Arduino board at the receiver end. At the transmitter end, a Graphical User Interface application within a cell phone sends on or off commands to the receiver where loads are connected.
With this technology, by touching the specified location on the Graphical user interface, the loads can be turned on or off remotely. Arduino board operates loads through optic-isolators and TRAIC.
2. Raspberry pi based Solar Street Light
The main aim of this project is to design a LED based street light with an auto-intensity control using the solar power from a photo voltaic cell interfaced to Raspberry pi board.
This system consists of a solar street light comprising LEDs, a solar panel, a rechargeable battery, a charge controller and a Raspberry pi board. A charge control circuit is used to control the charging of the battery, and the photo voltaic panels that convert the sunlight into electrical energy are used for charging the batteries.
During the peak hours, the intensity of the sunlight is very high, and then gradually diminishes as the dusk approaches, and eventually disappears with the onset of night and during late night hours. It means lights must remain on during the night time and get automatically switched off in the morning.
This type of intensity control thus helps in saving energy during late nights wherein traffic density is low on streets. Therefore, to control the intensity of the light at different times during night, the traffic light control system is engaged with a programmable Raspberry Pi by using Pulse width modulation technique.
3. Zigbee Wireless Communication based Forest Fire Detection Powered by Solar Energy
This project is implemented using Zigbee wireless technology to detect and control the forest fires. Solar energy system with maximum power point tacking attached to the embedded controller continuously monitors the temperature in the forest area.
Remote operation is achieved by using Zigbee modem that if placed in the forest, sends the information signals to the central controlling area. If any fire mishap takes place in the control field, the sensors detects the temperature, and then the controller turns water pumping system on. This system uses a LabVIEW software to monitor all the field parameters that continuously interact with the Zigbee modem.
4. Vehicle’s Accident Prevention Using Eye Blink Sensor
Nowadays different technologies are being introduced to reduce the accidents as they have become very frequent in our day-to-day life.
The main objective of this project is to prevent an accident with an eye blink that stops a vehicle immediately when its driver sleeps. This project encompasses various components like a microcontroller, power supply, an eye blink sensor, an LCD display and an RF transmitter and receiver.
The project comprises two sections namely a transmitter and a receiver section. The eye blink sensors can be mounted on the goggles to be worn while driving and the sensors are mounted in such a way that the transmitter and the receiver are aligned with the eye and are placed in front of the system.
If eyes are open, then the IR will be reflected and received by the sensor, and if eyes are closed, then the IR sensor stops receiving the signal and the vehicle will be stopped automatically by displaying the information on the LCD. Similarly, if eyes open up again, the sensors receive the signal, and then the vehicle starts automatically displaying the message on the LCD.
At the receiver side, the transmitted signal is received and the signal gets decoded, and then the information gets displayed on the LCD and simultaneously a buzzing sound alerts the receiver’s end.
5. Auto Metro Train to Shuttle between Stations
This project is designed to demonstrate the technology of a metro train movement, which is very common in many of the developed countries.
The above block diagram depicts a metro train designed by using robotics technology and programmed with a micro controller. This system consists of IR sensors that are placed on both the ends of a microcontroller and counters that are used for limiting the number of passengers with an automatic on and off system. This is a proposed system of automatic metro train that abandons the need of a driver.
In this system, a microcontroller is used as a CPU. Whenever the train enters any station, it stops automatically as it is sensed by an IR sensor, and then the door opens automatically when any person enters or leaves the train. The system also counts the number of passengers. A seven segment display is used to display the number of passengers as well as other information required for the passengers including the station name.
A Motor driver IC along with the set of motors help the robot to move in desired directions like forward, backward, left and right, respectively. A buzzer is placed in this system to alert the passengers while closing and opening the door.
These are some of the research projects based on wireless communication system. You might have gained some valuable insights out of this article particularly from the projects related to communication system, after thoroughly reading them. Apart from this, for any assistance regarding projects including details, suggestions, and comments, you can comment in the comment section below.